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II.6 Pompeii. Anfiteatro or Amphitheatre.

First excavations 1748, then abandoned.

Completely excavated between 1813 and 1816. Bombed in 1943.

 

Part:       1        2        3        4        5        6        7_

 

According to the Soprintendenza web site, (See l'anfiteatro page)

 

Costruito (circa 70 a.C.) dai duoviri Q. Valgus e M. Porcius, è tra gli anfiteatri più antichi e meglio conservati e accoglieva oltre 20.000 spettatori. 
La cavea è divisa in tre settori: la ima cavea (prima fila) per i cittadini importanti, la media e la summa, più in alto, per gli altri. Spesso sulle tribune un velario proteggeva dal sole gli spettatori. 
L'edificio era destinato ai combattimenti tra gladiatori. Sull'asse maggiore dell'arena si aprivano due porte: per una entrava la parata dei partecipanti ai giochi, dall'altra erano portati via i corpi esanimi o feriti. 
Nel 59 d.C. 'tifosi' pompeiani e nocerini scatenarono una violenta rissa e il 'campo fu squalificato' per dieci anni (provvedimento annullato dopo il sisma del 62 d.C.):

 

Built around 70 B.C, by the duoviri Q. Valgus and M. Porcius, it is one of the oldest and best preserved amphitheatres with a seating capacity of around 20,000.

The cavea is divided into three sectors: the ima cavea (first row) for the prominent citizens, the media cavea and summa cavea, higher, for others.

A shade sail was often used to protect spectators from the sun. The building was used for gladiatorial combat.

At each end of the major axis of the arena was an opening, by one the parade of participants in the games entered, and by the other, the dead or wounded bodies were taken away.   

In 59 AD, 'fans' of Pompeii and Nocera unleashed a violent brawl and the games were banned for ten years. This measure was cancelled after the earthquake of 62 AD.

 

According to Cooley, the amphitheatre was built in c.70 BC (as evidenced by an inscribed plaque) and abuts on the town’s defensive walls in the south-eastern district of the town. The large quantities of soil removed to create the sunken arena were piled up to support the spectators’ seating. It may have had a seating capacity of c.24,000 – more than enough seats to cater for the whole of Pompeii’s population and for an almost equally large number of visitors too.

 

Spectators were divided up and allocated seats in different parts of the auditorium according to their social status. Intermingling of the common crowd with the elite was avoided: a system of separate entrances and tunnels gave access to the lower tiers of seating, while external staircases led directly to the upper tiers for the masses. It seems likely that women were confined to the uppermost seats, where they may have been allocated seats in ‘boxes’, each with a capacity of up to fourteen people. Magistrates and others funding the games would have occupied double-width honorific seats (bisellia) in special boxes near to the arena. A canvas awning (vela) stretching out over the seating, supported by tall wooden masts, protected spectators from light rain and sun alike.

 

See Cooley, A. and M.G.L., 2004. Pompeii: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, p. 46.

 

II.6 Pompeii. May 2006. Amphitheatre, looking from the south.

II.6 Pompeii. May 2006. Amphitheatre, looking from the south.

 

II.6 Pompeii. 1944. Amphitheatre, looking from the south. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

II.6 Pompeii. 1944. Amphitheatre, looking from the south. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

 

II.6 Pompeii. May 2006. Amphitheatre and Tower IV, looking north.

II.6 Pompeii. May 2006. Amphitheatre and Tower IV, looking north.

 

II.6 Pompeii. 1961. Looking north-west towards ampitheatre on its eastern side, Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J61f0292

II.6 Pompeii. 1961. Looking north towards amphitheatre. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J61f0292

 

II.6 Pompeii. May 2006. Amphitheatre from Tower IV, looking north.

II.6 Pompeii. May 2006. Amphitheatre from near Tower IV, looking north.

 

II.6 Pompeii. 1968. Looking west from south of ampitheatre, Tower IV can be seen on the right.  Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
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II.6 Pompeii. 1968. Looking west from south of amphitheatre, Tower IV can be seen on the right. 

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J68f1758

 

II.6 Pompeii. 1968. Looking north-west from south of ampitheatre. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J68f1757

II.6 Pompeii. 1968. Looking north-west from south of amphitheatre. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J68f1757

 

II.6 Pompeii. 1968. Looking north to ampitheatre and section of wall between Tower IV, on left, and Tower V, on right. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J68f1756

II.6 Pompeii. 1968. Looking north to amphitheatre and section of wall between Tower IV, on left, and Tower V, on right.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J68f1756

 

II.6 Pompeii. 1972. Looking north to ampitheatre and section of wall.  Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski. 
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details. J72f0429

II.6 Pompeii. 1972. Looking north to amphitheatre and section of wall.  Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J72f0429

 

II.6 Pompeii. 1968. Looking north to ampitheatre and section of wall near Tower V, on right.
Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J68f1755

II.6 Pompeii. 1968. Looking north to amphitheatre and section of wall near Tower V, on right.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J68f1755

 

II.6 Pompeii. 1968. South-east corner of ampitheatre. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J68f0116

II.6 Pompeii. 1968. South-east corner of amphitheatre. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J68f0116

 

II.6 Pompeii. 1961. Looking north to ampitheatre and section of wall near Tower V, on right.
Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J61f0293

II.6 Pompeii. 1961. Looking north to amphitheatre and section of wall near Tower V, on right.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J61f0293

 

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Steps at south-west end of Amphitheatre.

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Steps at south-west end of amphitheatre.

 

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Steps at south-west end of Amphitheatre.

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Steps at south-west end of amphitheatre.

 

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Amphitheatre, entrance at south-west end.

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Amphitheatre, entrance at south-west end.

 

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Amphitheatre, looking north along west side.

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Amphitheatre, looking north along west side.

 

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Amphitheatre, south entrance on west side.

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Amphitheatre, south entrance on west side.

 

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Amphitheatre, central west side entrance and central double staircase.

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Amphitheatre, central west side entrance and central double staircase.

 

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Amphitheatre, central west side entrance.

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Amphitheatre, central west side entrance.

 

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Amphitheatre, central west side entrance.

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Amphitheatre, central west side entrance.

 

II.6 Pompeii. 1970. Central west side of ampitheatre.  Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J70f0695

II.6 Pompeii. 1970. Central west side of amphitheatre.  Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J70f0695

 

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Amphitheatre, central west side double staircase.

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Amphitheatre, central west side double staircase.

 

II.6 Pompeii, 1968. Looking north-east towards central west side double staircase. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J68f0060

II.6 Pompeii, 1968. Looking north-east towards central west side double staircase.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J68f0060

 

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Amphitheatre, central west side double staircase.

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Amphitheatre, central west side double staircase.

 

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Amphitheatre, central west side double staircase.

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Amphitheatre, central west side double staircase.

 

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Amphitheatre, central west side double staircase.

II.6 Pompeii. September 2005. Amphitheatre, central west side double staircase.

 

II.6 Pompeii. 1970. North-west end of ampitheatre.  Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J70f0696

II.6 Pompeii. 1970. North-west end of amphitheatre.  Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J70f0696

 

II.6 Pompeii. 1968. Looking south-east towards west side of ampitheatre. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J68f2002

II.6 Pompeii. 1968. Looking south-east towards west side of amphitheatre.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J68f2002

 

II.6 Pompeii. 4th October 1937. Looking south along west side, from near double entrance stairway.  Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

II.6 Pompeii. 4th October 1937. Looking south along west side, from near double entrance stairway.

Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

 

 

Part:       1        2        3        4        5        6        7_