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Villa 20. Pompeii (formerly Torre Annunziata). Villa rustica detta di Titus Siminius Stephanus.

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus. Contrada Cività, Fondo Masucci-D'Aquino.

Excavated 1897-1898.

Part 3: Fondo Masucci-D'Aquino                                               Part 1: fondo Barbatelli

Part 2: fondo Barbatelli                                      Villas 20 and 21 Combined plan and location plan (opens in separate window)

 

Located by the walls of Pompeii in contrada Civita in the municipality of Torre Annunziata (today in Pompeii), a few hundred metres from porta Vesuvio.

C.T.P. shows two villas, 20 and 21, found to the north of the Vesuvian Gate.

Villa 20 was described as the Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, discovered beneath the land on fondo Masucci d’Aquino.

Villa 21 was described as workshops found beneath the land on fondo Barbatelli.

According to Stefani, these were parts of the same villa.

See Stefani in Rivista di Studi Pompeiani VII, 1995-6, p. 28, fig. 21.

See Van der Poel, H. B., 1981. Corpus Topographicum Pompeianum, Part V. Austin: University of Texas. p.22 and map.

 

Bibliography

 

Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, pp. 337ff.; 1898, pp. 494ff.; 1899, pp. 236ff.; 1900, pp. 69ff.

Carrington R. 1931. Studies in the Campanian Villae Rusticae: Journal of Roman Studies no. 21, pp. 112 (n. 20), 113, 116ff. and note 7.

Casale A., Bianco A., Primo contributo alla topografia del suburbio pompeiano: Supplemento al n. 15 di ANTIQUA ottobre-dicembre 1979, 8, p. 31, fig.5.

Day J., 1932. Agriculture in the life of Pompeii: Yale Classical Studies 3, pp. 165-208, p. 186, tav. B, C, n. 20.

Della Corte, M., 1965.  Case ed Abitanti di Pompei. Napoli: Fausto Fiorentino. pp. 447ff.

Moorman E., in Dobbins, J. J. and Foss, P. W., 2008. The World of Pompeii. Oxford: Routledge, p. 437, n. 20.

Rostovzev M., 1973. Storia economica e sociale dell'Impero romano, Firenze, 5° ediz., p. 34, note 26, n. 20.

Stefani G, 1995-6 Contributo alla carta archeologica dell’ager pompeianus: I rinvenimenti presso Porta Vesuvio: Rivista di Studi Pompeiani VII, 1995-6, pp. 11-33.

Van der Poel, H. B., 1981. Corpus Topographicum Pompeianum, Part V. Austin: University of Texas, n. 20, p. 22 and map.

 

 

Sogliano wrote in his report for December 1897:

And the learned would know certainly that the Royal Government, who with a broad vision, have revealed a whole new program of excavations, and has authorized the Administration to proceed with the purchase of the entire fondo, that is Minervini, now owned by Mrs. Barbatelli, placed outside the walls of Pompeii between the Herculaneum Gate and that of Sarno.

With the purchase of this fondo, it will not only give a solution to many topographical problems affecting the excavation of the walls, towers, gates and public streets with the adjacent tombs, but will also be able to assist with the excavation of those part of the suburbs located to the North of the city.

Today the excavation opened by sig. D’Aquino at 130 metres from the northern boundary warns us that ancient ruins lie buried also under the fondo Barbatelli. It would be an unforgivable mistake to use, as in the past, that fondo for the discharge of the earth resulting from excavations, without having first explored it.

And yet it is well to commend the Royal Government, which has put the fondo Barbatelli into the possession of this administration of the excavations. This puts us in position to ensure the systematic exploration, describing and noting these remains, which by luck were returned to light, and take notes, photographs and drawings that can be studied.

With the hope that the new program has prompt fulfilment, I would like to close the series of my Pompeian reports for this year. 

A. SOGLIANO (December 1897).

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 534.

 

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus. December 2006. Looking north from Vesuvian Gate towards area of villa.

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus. December 2006. Looking north from Vesuvian Gate towards area of villa.

 

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus. 1910 excavations to enlarge the area outside of the Vesuvian Gate. Looking north towards area that the Villas 20 and 21 would have been buried beneath. See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1910, p.558, fig 2.

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus. 1910 excavations to enlarge the area outside of the Vesuvian Gate.

Looking north towards area that the Villas 20 and 21 would have been buried beneath.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1910, p.558, fig 2.

 

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. Plan of villa showing rooms excavated in 1897.  See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p.495, fig. 1.

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. Plan of villa showing rooms excavated in 1897. 

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p.495, fig. 1.

 

The complex on the north end was beneath the fondo Masucci d’Aquino and that at the south end beneath the fondo Barbatelli.  The complex consisted of a structure composed of many rooms that opened onto a large atrium or courtyard and a peristyle. There were also rooms on an upper floor. Some of the rooms had decorated walls and mosaic flooring. Sogliano did not indicate a precise use for these buildings. This was known as the villa of T. Siminius Stephanus because a bronze seal with the name was found in the peristyle. This is now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 125093.

 

According to Sogliano, excavations began on 31 May last [1897], to the north of Pompeii and precisely at a distance of 130 metres from the third tower, counting from Herculaneum gate, from which that tower is 230m.distant. The complex of buildings, which we can see in the plan (fig. 1), was excavated until nearly the end of December. As to the actual state of the excavation it is not possible to bring a proper judgement on the buildings that have so far been excavated, and of which we do not yet know where the entrance was.

 

Room “A”

This was possibly the entrance, located on the south side, towards the city, and that the area indicated with the letter “A” was a type of courtyard, of which the east and south have not yet been excavated.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p.494-5.

 

According to Stefani, “Certo era che sul lato occidentale della csd Villa di T. Siminius Stephanus vi era un colonnata, presente lungo le strutture del fondo Masucci d’Aquino e lungo quelle del fondo Barbatelli, forse il propileo monumentale d’ingresso alla villa nella fase in cui fu residenza.”

 

(translation: Certainly on the western side of csd Villa T. Siminius Stephanus was a colonnata, located along the buildings of fondo Masucci d’Aquino and along those of fondo Barbatelli, perhaps this was the monumental gateway to the villa entrance at the time when it was a residence).

See Rivista di Studi Pompeiani VII, 1995-96, p.11-33.

 

In the north-east corner of area “A”, and precisely in the extreme north end of the east side, at 'a', a “tabella ansata” of white plaster was found on the opus incertum wall. It was 0.21m high x 0.41m wide, within which were letters drawn with charcoal,  reading - 

                        CACATOR CA

                         VE MALVM

 

Room “B”

This had its doorway from the courtyard, onto which the window jutted out and gave light to the room. The walls were coated with plaster mixed with brick-mortar. Here were found quite a few items, of bronze, iron, and terracotta, including bronze horse fittings.

 

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. 3rd July 1897. Bronze horse fittings found in room B. See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, fig.2, p. 496. Now in Naples Archaeological Museum.

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. 3rd July 1897. Bronze horse fittings found in room B.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, fig.2, p. 496.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum.

 

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. 1898. Bronze horse muzzle found in room B. See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, fig.3, p. 497. Now in Naples Archaeological Museum.

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. 1898. Bronze horse muzzle found in room B.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, fig.3, p. 497.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum.

 

 

Corridor “C”

This led westwards from courtyard “A”. It had beaten earth floors, and a zoccolo (plinth) made of crushed brick at the foot of the wall. In the south wall, at a height of approximately 3.50m above the ground, were the holes for the supporting beams of the ceiling. Above these holes, were the remains of further decoration belonging to rooms on the upper floor. In this corridor on 11th June in the upper layer of earth an iron grating in fragments was found

 

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. 13th July 1897. Corridor C. An amphora was found with the following inscription in black letters: 
Imp(eratore) Vespasiano III Cos
Propertianum 
amp(horas) n(umero) C
The third consulship of Vespasian was in 71AD. See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p. 497.

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. 13th July 1897. Corridor C.

An amphora was found with the following inscription in black letters:

Imp(eratore) Vespasiano III Cos

Propertainum

amp(horas) n(umero) C

The third consulship of Vespasian was in 71AD.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p. 497.

 

Corridor “D”.

This led northwards from courtyard “A” towards the peristyle “H”. 

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p. 497.

 

Room “E”

The doorway was on the north side of courtyard “A”. The flooring was of beaten earth, and it had a zoccolo made from crushed brick to a height of 1.80m on the walls. In the west wall, a trace of the roofing could be seen. Bronze, iron, bone, glass and terracotta items were found here.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p. 498.

 

Room “F”.

This large room opened on the north side at the western end of corridor “C”. The doorpost of the entrance doorway of room “F” was of brick, alternating with Sarno stone, cut in the shape of bricks. The walling was of opus incertum set with varied stones, especially volcanic. The walls were plastered with rough white plaster, with a high zoccolo of crushed  brick. On the west wall, and at the height of the upper room, were the remains of yellow and red plaster. This large room “F” was divided into two rooms by a half-wall, of which now one could hardly recognise the trace in the floor; and it is not clear where the doorway between the two rooms was. In the north-east corner was the staircase “b”.

 

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. Mosaic of the Academy of Plato (Dell’accademia Platonica). Found 14th July 1897 in room F, at a depth of two metres in a layer of ash and not in situ. It was embedded in a slab of travertine although traces of wear confirmed its original use in a floor. Now in Naples Archaeological Museum.  Inventory number 124545. Other bronze, iron, glass, lead, bone and terracotta items were also found. See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p. 498-9.

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. Mosaic of the Academy of Plato (Dell’accademia Platonica).

Found 14th July 1897 in room F, at a depth of two metres in a layer of ash and not in situ.

It was embedded in a slab of travertine although traces of wear confirmed its original use in a floor.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum.  Inventory number 124545.

Other bronze, iron, glass, lead, bone and terracotta items were also found.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p. 498-9.

 

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. Mosaic of the Academy of Plato (Dell’accademia Platonica). 1968.  Now in Naples Archaeological Museum.  Inventory number 124545.  Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.  J68f1052

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. Mosaic of the Academy of Plato. Mosaico dell’accademia di Platone.

1968.  Now in Naples Archaeological Museum.  Inventory number 124545.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J68f1052

 

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. 1968.  
Mosaic of the Academy of Plato. Mosaico dell’accademia di Platone.
Detail from “top-left” of mosaic. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J68f1050

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. 1968. 

Mosaic of the Academy of Plato. Mosaico dell’accademia di Platone.

Detail from “top-left” of mosaic. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J68f1050 

 

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. Mosaic of the Academy of Plato (Dell’accademia Platonica). 1968.  Detail from “top-right” of mosaic. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details. J68f1049

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino.

Mosaic of the Academy of Plato. Mosaico dell’accademia di Platone.

1968.  Detail from “top-right” of mosaic. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J68f1049

 

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. Mosaic of the Academy of Plato (Dell’accademia Platonica).  1968.  Detail from “bottom-left” of mosaic. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.  J68f1051

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino.

Mosaic of the Academy of Plato. Mosaico dell’accademia di Platone.

1968.  Detail from “bottom-left” of mosaic. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J68f1051

 

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. Mosaic of the Academy of Plato (Dell’accademia Platonica). 1968.  Detail from “bottom-right” of mosaic. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details. J68f1048

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino.

Mosaic of the Academy of Plato. Mosaico dell’accademia di Platone.

1968.  Detail from “bottom-right” of mosaic. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J68f1048

 

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. 1957. 
Mosaic of the Academy of Plato (Dell’accademia Platonica).
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 124545.
Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J57f0538

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. 1957.

Mosaic of the Academy of Plato. Mosaico dell’accademia di Platone.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 124545.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J57f0538

 

According to NdS, La signora Giuditta Masucci-d’Aquino received from R. Government permission to do archaeological explorations in a fondo of her ownership, located in contrada Civita in Torre Annunziata.

Excavations began on 31 May last bringing to light part of an ancient building without any major important finds; except that found on the July 14 which returned to light a precious mosaic.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1897, p. 337-342.

 

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. 13th July 1897. Room F. A lagena (flask), two amphorae and a fragment of a third were found with the following inscription in black letters:
Imp(eratore) Vespasiano IIII 
Propertianum 
amp(horas) n(umero) CL
The fourth consulship of Vespasian was in 72AD. See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p. 498.

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. 13th July 1897. Room F.

A lagena (flask), two amphorae and a fragment of a third were found with the following inscription in black letters:

 

Imp(eratore) Vespasiano IIII

Propertianum

amp(horas) n(umero) CL

 

The fourth consulship of Vespasian was in 72AD.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p. 498.

 

Room “G”

This large room opened on the north side at the western end of corridor “C”. 

It was linked with another room “S”.

It was probably a triclinium noting in the middle of its floor the usual rectangle of coloured marble, indicating the place for the table.

Agreeing with this description was the fact that the room had decorated walls, demonstrating that this was part of the owner’s quarters, which seemed to be found towards the west.

The decoration, of red and yellow panels, did not offer anything of importance.

 

Rooms “K”, “I”, “L”

These had their doorways in corridor “C”, but were not completely excavated.

 

Room “J”

The doorway to room “J” was on the left In corridor “D”.

The walls were formed of opus incertum without any trace of plaster.

 

Room “Z”

This was a rustic room, found on the right in corridor D, opposite room “J”.

 

Peristyle “H”

Through corridor “D”, one entered the peristyle “H”, of which so far only two sides had been excavated, the eastern and southern, and part of the western. In the eastern portico, a short way from the entrance of room “V”, 5 human skeletons were found on 26th August 1897. Near to them was found items of gold, silver and bronze.  

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p. 499.

 

And near the cistern ‘c’, at ‘d’ on the eastern portico of the peristyle, a marble column was found on 16th October 1897. It was 0.82m high and with a diameter of 0.38m.  Incised in it was-

 

M • MVNDICIVS

MALCHIO

M. CLODIVS

AGATHO

MAG EX. P.C.F.C

 

M(arcus) Mundicius Malchio, M(arcus) Clodius Agatho, mag(istri), ex p(ecunia) c(onlata) f(aciundum) c(urarunt).

 

M. Mundicius Malchio and M. Clodius Agatho, who with money raised dedicated a small monument, perhaps with a statue now lost, as considerable traces of lead remained in the grooves on the flat top of the column.

This was a significant find as it listed the names of two magistri of the priesthood Pagus Augustus Felix suburbanus.

It is now preserved in the National Museum.

 

On the southern portico, items of bronze, iron, marble were found. On the western portico, a slab of African marble, a stone cippus in the form of a herm, and five pieces of travertine were found.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p. 499-500.

 

Peristyle area “M”.

 

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. Found 17th September 1897, in area “M” of the peristyle. Drawing of rectangular bronze seal found in the layer of ash and at a depth of 2 metres. It had the following words in raised lettering 
T SIMINI
STEPANI
The name of Siminius was not common in Campania, and occurs only once in an epigraph puteolana (CIL X 2960). See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p. 500.

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. Found 17th September 1897, in area “M” of the peristyle.

Drawing of rectangular bronze seal found in the layer of ash and at a depth of 2 metres. It had the following words in raised lettering

T SIMINI

STEPANI

The name of Siminius was not common in Campania, and occurs only once in an epigraph puteolana (CIL X 2960).

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p. 500.

 

Room “N”

Under the southern portico, first one meets the doorway to room “N” with remains of white plaster on the walls.

The left doorpost of the entrance doorway was made of brick, while the remaining entrance wall was of brick alternating with rows of limestone and tufa. The other three walls were of opus incertum. Found here were items of iron, bone, and terracotta See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p. 500.

 

Stairs “O”

The stairs had seven steps going up, with rough plaster on the right side of the wall. After this were the rooms “P”, “Q” and “R”.

 

Room “P”

The right doorpost of the entrance doorway was constructed of large limestone blocks, while the rest of the entrance wall and the other three walls were of opera incertum covered in rough plaster.

At around 2.50m from the floor of crushed brick was a trace of the roof; and above this one could see the remains of an upper room that had its walls plastered, in the lower part, with crushed brick plaster.

Items of glass, marble, iron, tufa and terracotta were found here (see page 500-1).

 

Room “Q”

The walls were covered with rustic white plaster, and at the height of 2.50m from the flooring was the trace of the roof, above which were other rooms.

Found here were items of bronze, iron, glass, terracotta and five amphorae, two of which had epigraphs.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p. 501.

 

Room “R”

The walls were covered with rustic white plaster, and at the height of 2.50m from the flooring was the trace of the roof, above which were other rooms.

Items of tufa, terracotta, bronze, glass-paste, and travertine were found.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p. 501.

 

Room “S”

Under the same southern portico opened the doorway to room “S”, communicating with triclinium “G”.

Items found here were bronze and iron.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p. 502.

 

Room “T”

This was one of only two rooms excavated on the west side of the peristyle. It had an earthenware floor (cocciopesto) and walls decorated with a white background, divided into the usual panels. 

In the two panels of the west wall were two small medallions with a dark-red background (diam. 0.17), containing a head of a gorgon: in the paintings on the other walls were feeding peacocks.

Found in this room were two small terracotta lamps, a small bronze bell found among animal bones, and a bronze tool which was part of a horse’s harness, also found was the horse’s skeleton.

 

Room “U”

This was the second of only two rooms excavated on the west side of the peristyle.

The room had its doorway on the northern side. Bronze, and terracotta items were found.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p. 501-2.

 

Room “V”

This was the south room under the east portico.

It had walls of rough plaster, Items of bronze, iron, terracotta, and three human skeletons were found (see page 502).

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p. 502.

 

Room “W’

This was the central room under the east portico.

It had flooring of crushed brick and walls faced with white plaster, which showed the holes for the supports for three shelves. 

On the west wall, and on that of the south, traces of the soffit could be seen, which was vaulted in the length of the room.

Items found here included bronze, lead and iron.

On the 2nd September in the north-east corner, a rectangular marble basin was found.

 

Under the east portico, attached to the pilaster wall between the entrances to rooms “V” and “W” at ‘e’ was a marble rectangular seat, 1.85m long and 0.36m wide.

 

Room “X”

This was the north room under the east portico.

This room had a travertine threshold in the entrance doorway and yet was rustic in the rest of the room.

Items found were bronze, iron, a gold earring and a small gold ring.

Two iron circles used for fetters, also found here, put there and crossed were two shin-bones of human skeletons, together with five human skeletons.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p. 502-3.

 

Corridor “α”

A corridor in the south-east of the peristyle, had the entrances to the kitchen “Y” (or “γ”) and room “β”.

The published description in NdS shows the letter “γ” (gamma) but on the plan the room in the corridor appears to show “Y”.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p. 503.

In 1898 the East of this the corridor “α” was continued to be excavated, in which the doorway to a room was found, this was left still full of earth.

The corridor then turned at a right angle to the north and in this part were three rustic rooms.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1899, p.238-9.

 

Kitchen “Y”  or “γ”

In the kitchen items of bronze, iron and terracotta were found.

 

Room “β”

In this room, a terracotta jug was found with an inscription in black.

 

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. 15th November 1897. Room “β”. Inscription found on terracotta jug.

GF SCOMBR
OPTIMVM
EX OFFICINA
A VMBRICI ABASCANTI

According to the Epigraphik-Datenbank Clauss/Slaby (See www.manfredclauss.de) this reads

G(arum) f(los) scombr(i)
Optimum
ex officina
A(uli) Umbrici Abascanti.       [CIL IV 5689 = D 08599a]

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. 15th November 1897. Room “β”.

Inscription found on terracotta jug.

 

GF SCOMBR

OPTIMVM

EX OFFICINA

A VMBRICI ABASCANTI

 

According to the Epigraphik-Datenbank Clauss/Slaby (See www.manfredclauss.de) this reads


G(arum) f(los) scombr(i)

Optimum

ex officina

A(uli) Umbrici Abascanti.       [CIL IV 5689 = D 08599a]

 

Rooms “Ɣ”, “δ” and “ε”

Three other rustic rooms were discovered, but nothing was found in them

 

The excavation was suspended on 18th December 1897.

In the following year, 1898, the excavation was continued from 23 May to 30 July and from 12 September to 12 November.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1899, p.236-9.

 

 

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. Plan of villa showing the rooms excavated in 1898. See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1899, p.236. The rooms with simply an outline belong to the first period of excavation and are seen on the plan previously published. See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p. 495.

Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, fondo Masucci-D'Aquino. Plan of villa showing the rooms excavated in 1898.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1899, p.236.

The rooms with simply an outline belong to the first period of excavation and are seen on the plan previously published.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p. 495.

 

According to Sogliano, the most important result of this second period of excavation is that the rooms A, B, C, D and E do not belong to the earlier excavated building, but are other adjacent buildings.

This confirms my hypothesis, already stated in Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1898, p. 499, that the remains are not of an isolated villa, but of a pagus [country district or community] and probably the pagus Augustus Felix suburbanus.

See Sogliano, Guida di Pompei, p. 57.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1899, p.237.

 

From 23 May to July 30, 1898 the excavation was made towards the western side of the area previously discovered.

However soon after having brought to light a small part of ambulatory ”μ”, covered by a portico, and part of the avenue "e" and of the adjacent avenue "f", the workman was moved away from this point.

 

Ambulatory “μ”

This had a portico that surrounded an open area, as the remains of brick columns that supported the roof and a channel "g" intended to collect rainwater were found.

 

Avenue “e”

This was of crude material and apparently had already been abolished by the ancients, having been found full of ancient earth and with the vault collapsed.

 

Avenue “f”

This was adjacent to avenue “e" was faced with brick plaster.

 

Rooms A’, B’, C’, D’, E’.

The environments A’, B’, C’, D’, E’ are situated at a higher level of about m. 1.70.

A’ is the portico of a peristyle, under which was found the base "a" for a strongbox or chest in iron and bronze, but it was not found.

 

The environments B’, C’, D’, E’ do not have any decoration except the floor mosaic.

 

In B’ on September 26th 1898 were found: -:

A bronze bracelet in fragments, a travertine mortar and two clumsy travertine feet of a table.

 

In room E’ on November 4th 1898 were found:

a lantern, an oil lamp with a chain to keep it suspended, a needle to repair nets and a fragmented strigil, all of bronze. A terracotta lamp with six nipples and an Arezzo plate in pieces.

On the 5th of the same month there was found a bronze patera and two terracotta tiles with the famous stamp of maker:
L EVMACHI

Among the top layers of earth were found a bronze needle (ago saccale), the top of a tufa altar and part of a small rotating mill wheel (mola versatilis).

 

Corridor “α” north extension with three rustic rooms

From 12 September to November 12, 1898 explorations were turned towards the north and east sides of the part already excavated. To the East of this the corridor “α” was continued to be excavated, in which certainly the doorway to a room was found, this was left still full of earth. The said hallway then turned at a right angle to the north; and in its length, opened another three doorways, all into rustic rooms. In the middle room, on 28th October, items of bronze, bone glass, and terracotta were found.

See Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità, 1899, p.238-9 for other finds and graffiti.

 

 

Part 1: fondo Barbatelli

Part 2: fondo Barbatelli            Villas 20 and 21 Combined plan and location plan (opens in separate window)