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Santuario B. Il santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino.

Sanctuary B. Suburban sanctuary of Fondo Iozzino outside Pompeii.

Sanctuary of Zeus Meilichios or Demeter or Ceres or Hecate - Artemis.

Excavated 1960, 1992, 2014 onwards. Restoration 1992.

 

Part 1      Part 2

 

1960 and 1992 excavations

 

Fondo Iozzino rivista VI p219 fig1

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 1993.

According to D’Ambrosio, the excavation conducted in 1960 had highlighted structures and recovered materials from an important suburban Sanctuary.

It consists of an outer wall of large blocks of Sarno limestone (Opus quadratum).

This surrounds a smaller and later wall, in Opus incertum, enclosing small structures, also in Opus incertum, the podiums of the two shrines as well as remains of walls of uncertain interpretation.

The external enclosure of blocks of limestone, found in collapse, was rebuilt and the structure in Opus incertum was restored before starting excavation.

On starting the excavation, it was soon apparent that the whole area of the inner fence was a compact layer (40 cm deep) consisting of a thick deposit of fragments of votive material mixed with a little earth.

This had been partly affected by exploration conducted in 1960.

Since this layer falls below the foundations structures in Opus incertum mentioned above, in some places even overlapping the deposit layer, we can deduce that this is prior to the construction of the shrines and the enclosure in Opus Incertum.
It also appeared sealed by a paving of pebbles, set in mortar, which is preserved in some points next to the structures.

 

The material found does not differ from that recovered in the excavation of 1960.

Thousands of fragments were recovered consisting of:

Ceramica a vernice nera - black-painted pottery (especially plates and cups) from end of IV and III-II century B.C.;
Ceramic achromatic (uncoloured pottery);

Red-figure Italiota pottery from the end of the fourth century. B.C.;

A huge amount of miniature ceramics, consisting of miniature cups and goblets of crude workmanship;
Campanian made bucchero [a grey terracotta pottery] (carinated bowls and kantharoi);
Fragments of arule (miniature altars) and architectural terracotta (some of the latter from the Archaic period);
A few fragments of coroplastics, but some of good workmanship;
Some bronze coins.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. Perfume bottle and miniature goblet. Photo courtesy of SANP, negative number 85811.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. Perfume bottle and miniature goblet.

Photo courtesy of SAP, negative number 85812.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. Ceramica a vernice nera - black-painted pottery. Photo courtesy of SANP, negative number 85811.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. Ceramica a vernice nera - black-painted pottery.

Photo courtesy of SAP, negative number 85811.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. Italiota red figure skyphos. Photo courtesy of SANP, negative number 85808.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. Italiota red figure skyphos.

Photo courtesy of SAP, negative number 85808.

 

From an initial, summary, examination of structures and materials, this has been a place of worship since the 6th century BC (buccheri, architectural terracotta).

Judging from the abundance of votive material must have had a period of great importance in the Hellenistic age.

Probably in the III century B.C. (judging from the materials and the construction techniques used and according to the chronological framework that traditionally is given) the shrine took a monumental aspect with the building of the outer sacred area (temenos) bounded by the great wall in Opus quadratum.

 

In Roman times (as a working hypothesis one might think of the years following the conquest of Pompeii by Sulla) there had to have been a reorganization of the area, with the dumping of votive material and, soon after, with the construction of the wall and structures in Opus incertum.

The state of the structures in Opus incertum and the partial collapse of the ancient outer wall, seem to prove that at the time of the eruption, the sanctuary was abandoned.

See D’Ambrosio A., Attività della Soprintendenza in Rivista di Studi Pompeiana VI, 1993, p. 219-221, figg. 1-5.

 

The statues

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. May 2018. Information card in the Antiquarium exhibition.
According to this, it was a place of worship as early as the 7th century BC and was monumentalized with a limestone precinct in the 3rd century BC. 
In the space defined by this structure, an additional tufa precinct was identified, in which were discovered three female clay sculptures dating to the mid to late 2nd century BC.
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. May 2018. Information card in the Antiquarium exhibition.

According to this, it was a place of worship as early as the 7th century BC and was monumentalized with a limestone precinct in the 3rd century BC.

In the space defined by this structure, an additional tufa precinct was identified, in which were discovered three female clay sculptures dating to the mid to late 2nd century BC.

Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. May 2018. Three statues found upturned in the lapilli.
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. May 2018. Three statues found upturned in the lapilli.

Left is Aphrodite and the other two may be Demeter/Ceres.

Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. Three statues found upturned in the lapilli between the aediculae of the temple in 1960.
On the left is a statue of Aphrodite or Artemis-Hecate.
The other two statues may be identified with Demeter or Ceres. 
On show in the Villa Imperiale VIII.1.a, April 2016.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. Three statues found upturned in the lapilli between the aediculae of the temple in 1960.

On the left is a statue of Aphrodite or Artemis-Hecate.

The other two statues may be identified with Demeter or Ceres.

On show in the Villa Imperiale VIII.1.a, April 2016.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. May 2018. Female statue possibly of Ceres/Demeter.
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. May 2018. Female statue possibly of Ceres/Demeter.

Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. June 2017. Female statue possibly of Ceres/Demeter, dating to the mid to late 2nd century BC. 
Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.
According to D’Ambrosio and Borriello, the statue was headless, fractured at about half of the neck.
The back is recomposed from fragments; the right forearm is reattached. 
The right hand is missing; the fingers of the left, the toes and the base plate are missing.
There are slight gaps and large abrasions on the rear of the statue and chipping in the drapery.
Now in SAP deposits. Inventory number 13151.
See D’Ambrosio A., Borriello M. 1990. Le Terrecotte Figurate Di Pompei. Roma: L’Erma di Bretschneider, 20, p. 26, tav. 6.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. June 2017. Female statue possibly of Ceres/Demeter, dating to the mid to late 2nd century BC.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

According to D’Ambrosio and Borriello, the statue was headless, fractured at about half of the neck.

The back is recomposed from fragments; the right forearm is reattached.

The right hand is missing; the fingers of the left, the toes and the base plate are missing.

There are slight gaps and large abrasions on the rear of the statue and chipping in the drapery.

Now in SAP deposits. Inventory number 13151.

See D’Ambrosio A., Borriello M. 1990. Le Terrecotte Figurate Di Pompei. Roma: L’Erma di Bretschneider, 20, p. 26, tav. 6.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 1960. Statue found upturned in the lapilli between the aediculae of the temple. 
Photograph courtesy of Parco Archeologico di Pompei.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 1960. Statue found upturned in the lapilli between the aediculae of the temple.

Photograph courtesy of Parco Archeologico di Pompei.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 1960. Statue found upturned in the lapilli between the aediculae of the temple. Photo courtesy of SAP.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 1960. Statue found upturned in the lapilli between the aediculae of the temple.

Photo courtesy of SAP.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. May 2018. Excavation photo from 1960 showing depth of lapilli at temple,.
Detail from photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. May 2018. Excavation photo from 1960 showing depth of lapilli at temple.

Detail from photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. May 2018. Statue of Artemis-Hecate or Aphrodite on show in Antiquarium.
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. May 2018. Statue of Artemis-Hecate or Aphrodite on show in Antiquarium.

Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. June 2017. Statue of Artemis-Hecate or Aphrodite, dating to the mid to late 2nd century BC. 
Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.
Now in SAP deposits, inventory number 13152.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. June 2017. Statue of Artemis-Hecate or Aphrodite, dating to the mid to late 2nd century BC.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Now in SAP deposits, inventory number 13152.

 

Santuario extraurbano del fondo Iozzino. Statue of Artemis-Hecate. 
It was reconstructed from fragments.
Height is 78,9cm; Width max. 34,5cm; Profile 22,8cm.
Now in SAP deposits, inventory number 13152.
See D’Ambrosio A., Borriello M. 1970. Le Terrecotte Figurate Di Pompei. Roma: L’Erma di Bretschneider, 18, p. 24, tav. 5.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. Statue of Artemis-Hecate.

Now in SAP deposits, inventory number 13152.

According to D’Ambrosio and Borriello, it was reconstructed from fragments.

Height is 78,9cm; Width max. 34,5cm; Profile 22,8cm.

The amount of terracotta from the sanctuary of the Fondo Iozzino was too small to make any judgments.

However, it should be emphasized that this sacred area has returned two of the very few large statues.

One of these can be considered the best example of coroplastics so far noted at Pompeii.

The three pottery finds from the Fondo Iozzino were found during the partial exploration of the building at that location in 1960.

See D’Ambrosio A., Borriello M. 1990. Le Terrecotte Figurate Di Pompei. Roma: L’Erma di Bretschneider, 18, p. 24, tav. 5.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. May 2018. Third statue found, possibly of Ceres/Demeter. 
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. May 2018. Third statue found, possibly of Ceres/Demeter.

Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. June 2017. Third statue, possibly of Ceres/Demeter, dating to the mid to late 2nd century BC, found at the sanctuary. 
Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.
Now in SAP deposits.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. June 2017.

Third statue, possibly of Ceres/Demeter, dating to the mid to late 2nd century BC, found at the sanctuary.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Now in SAP deposits.

 

Ceramics on exhibition in Antiquarium

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. May 2018. Finds from site. Now in SAP deposits.
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. May 2018. Finds from site. Now in SAP deposits.

Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. June 2017. Finds from site. Now in SAP deposits.
Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.
The exhibition information card identifies these as:
1:   Red figure kylix with woman’s head, 4th century BC
2:   Campanian painted skyphos, second half of 4th century BC
3:   Rim of painted Campanian bowl, second half of 4th century BC
4:   Base of Campanian bowl with female head, second half of 4th century BC
5:   Miniature kraters, 4th to 2nd century BC
6:   Miniature plates, 3rd to 2nd century BC
7:   Black gloss cups, 3rd century BC
8:   Coarse ware beakers, 4th to 2nd century BC
9:   Terracotta figurine of woman nursing a child, 4th to 3rd century BC
10: Votive iron keys, Hellenistic period
11:  Bronze rings, Hellenistic period

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. June 2017. Finds from site. Now in SAP deposits.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

The exhibition information card identifies these as:

1:   Red figure kylix with woman’s head, 4th century BC

2:   Campanian painted skyphos, second half of 4th century BC

3:   Rim of painted Campanian bowl, second half of 4th century BC

4:   Base of Campanian bowl with female head, second half of 4th century BC

5:   Miniature kraters, 4th to 2nd century BC

6:   Miniature plates, 3rd to 2nd century BC

7:   Black gloss cups, 3rd century BC

8:   Coarse ware beakers, 4th to 2nd century BC

9:   Terracotta figurine of woman nursing a child, 4th to 3rd century BC

10: Votive iron keys, Hellenistic period

11:  Bronze rings, Hellenistic period

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. May 2018. More finds from site. Now in SAP deposits.
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. May 2018. More finds from site. Now in SAP deposits.

Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. June 2017. More finds from site. Now in SAP deposits.
Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.
The exhibition information card identifies these as:
1:   Campanian bucchero kantharos with Etruscan inscription, “mi marmarces tetanas” “of Marmarce Tetana” second half of 6th century BC
2:   Campanian bucchero kantharos with Etruscan inscription, second half of 6th century BC
3:   Campanian bucchero bowl with graffito bird, second quarter of 6th to 1st quarter of 5th century BC
4:   Bucchero chalice with fan motifs, end of 7th to 1st quarter 6th century BC
5:   Bucchero olpe, second half of 6th to 1st quarter of 5th century BC
6:   Campanian bucchero bowl, second half of 6th century BC
7:   Campanian bucchero kantharos, second half of 6th century BC
8:   Attic black-figure lekythoi with palmette decoration, circa 480 BC
9:   Attic black-figure lekythoi with hoplites, of 6th to beginning of 5th century BC
10:  Corinthian aryballos decorated with hoplites, 580 to 560 BC
11:  Bowl with painted decoration, archaic period
12:  Faience bead, archaic period
13:  Iron arrow heads, 6th century BC
14:  Sherds of bucchero kantharoi and cups with graffiti, 6th century BC

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. June 2017. More finds from site. Now in SAP deposits.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

The exhibition information card identifies these as:

1:   Campanian bucchero kantharos with Etruscan inscription, “mi marmarces tetanas” = “of Marmarce Tetana”, second half of 6th century BC

2:   Campanian bucchero kantharos with Etruscan inscription, second half of 6th century BC

3:   Campanian bucchero bowl with graffito bird, second quarter of 6th to 1st quarter of 5th century BC

4:   Bucchero chalice with fan motifs, end of 7th to 1st quarter 6th century BC

5:   Bucchero olpe, second half of 6th to 1st quarter of 5th century BC

6:   Campanian bucchero bowl, second half of 6th century BC

7:   Campanian bucchero kantharos, second half of 6th century BC

8:   Attic black-figure lekythoi with palmette decoration, circa 480 BC

9:   Attic black-figure lekythoi with hoplites, of 6th to beginning of 5th century BC

10:  Corinthian aryballos decorated with hoplites, 580 to 560 BC

11:  Bowl with painted decoration, archaic period

12:  Faience bead, archaic period

13:  Iron arrow heads, 6th century BC

14:  Sherds of bucchero kantharoi and cups with graffiti, 6th century BC

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. May 2018. Pottery fragment with scratched Etruscan inscription.
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. May 2018. Pottery fragment with scratched Etruscan inscription.

Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. June 2017. Pottery with scratched Etruscan inscription.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. June 2017. Pottery with scratched Etruscan inscription.

 

2014 excavations

From the SAP web site

 

An unknown chapter in the history of Pompeii before AD 79 can now be reconstructed through the votive offerings which have been rediscovered in the sanctuaries. Objects hailing from all over the Mediterranean have been found, including weapons, pottery with Etruscan inscriptions and jewellery given as an offering for the most important phases of life: from the passage from childhood to adulthood, marriage, the first child and to the initiation of arms.

These are objects well known to history, but they have been discovered in great numbers in the excavations which have recently been conducted within the sacred areas of Pompeii (the Sanctuary of Apollo, Athena and Hercules and the Capitolium) and in many cases they have been found intact, particularly in the Suburban Sanctuary of Fondo Iozzino, where they have been found almost as if in the moment of their deposition, and date to the long period between the 6th century to at least the beginning of the first century BC.   

 

The Sanctuary, located in the heart of the modern city in what was once a Iozzino owned quarry for the extraction of lapilli, has been studied on many occasions since 1960, and since 2014 has borne witness to thorough and continuous research.

 

Recent investigations have focused on the space between the two sacred precincts and have brought to light a layer of activity dating back to the 6th century BC, in which a great many bronze and iron weapons have been found. Ceramic pottery, particularly in bucchero, has also been found, intentionally deposited, including examples of brochettes, kantharoi and bowls. Among the weapons: short swords, around twenty spearheads made of iron, and sometimes with bronze handles, javelin tips, an iron sceptre - exceedingly rare in Southern Italy - and a large bronze shield with a decorated inner band into which the arm was placed. 

The most striking aspect of the finds dated to the Archaic Age is the sheer quantity of bucchero pottery with engraved inscriptions in the Etruscan language, which represents the largest corpus of Etruscan inscriptions yet found in a single context in Southern Italy. The bucchero pottery was employed in sacrifices which saw offerings of red or white wine, or herbal infusions, to the gods. 

The inscriptions were made on the basin and on the feet of the bowls and banquet vases, which after usage were deposited upside down on the ground.

These inscriptions reveal the names of those who made the offerings - Etruscans who also came from Tuscany, and of the deities to whom the sanctuary was dedicated - the god ‘apa’ or ‘father’ - perhaps Jupiter Meilichios. Beside these inscriptions there are also numerous engraved symbols, such as crosses, five-pointed stars, asterisks and tree saplings. Together with these offerings, jewellery such as silver or gold rings with decorated stones have been found, and pottery hailing from all over the Ancient Mediterranean: black varnished ceramic from Attica, perfume vases from Corinth, legged ointment containers from the Ionian world and Etrusco-Corinthan cups.

See http://www.pompeiisites.org/Sezione.jsp?titolo=Votive+Offerings+Pre-Roman&idSezione=7533

 

Finds

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Votive pottery offerings and black finish bowls.
A large amount of pottery hailing from all over the Ancient Mediterranean has been found: 
black varnished ceramic from Attica, perfume vases from Corinth, legged ointment containers from the Ionian world and Etrusco-Corinthan cups.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Votive pottery offerings and black finish bowls.

A large amount of pottery hailing from all over the Ancient Mediterranean has been found: 

black varnished ceramic from Attica, perfume vases from Corinth, legged ointment containers from the Ionian world and Etrusco-Corinthan cups.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Finds including weapons in the foreground with pottery and jewellery at the rear.
Among the weapons found were short swords, around twenty spearheads made of iron, and sometimes with bronze handles, javelin tips, an iron sceptre - exceedingly rare in Southern Italy - and a large bronze shield with a decorated inner band into which the arm was placed. 
Photo courtesy of SAP.
See http://www.pompeiisites.org/Sezione.jsp?titolo=Votive+Offerings+Pre-Roman&idSezione=7533

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Finds including weapons in the foreground with pottery and jewellery at the rear.

Among the weapons found were short swords, around twenty spearheads made of iron, and sometimes with bronze handles, javelin tips, an iron sceptre - exceedingly rare in Southern Italy - and a large bronze shield with a decorated inner band into which the arm was placed. 

Photo courtesy of SAP.

See http://www.pompeiisites.org/Sezione.jsp?titolo=Votive+Offerings+Pre-Roman&idSezione=7533

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. An iron sceptre was found, exceedingly rare in Southern Italy.
Photo courtesy of SAP.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations.

An iron sceptre was found, exceedingly rare in Southern Italy.

Photo courtesy of SAP.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Spear heads.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Spear heads.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Jewellery finds.
Photo courtesy of SAP.
See http://www.pompeiisites.org/Sezione.jsp?titolo=Votive+Offerings+Pre-Roman&idSezione=7533

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Jewellery finds.

Photo courtesy of SAP.

See http://www.pompeiisites.org/Sezione.jsp?titolo=Votive+Offerings+Pre-Roman&idSezione=7533

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Gold ring with red stone centre.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Gold ring with red stone centre.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Turquoise bead decorated with gold, white and blue ring patterns.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Turquoise bead decorated with gold, white and blue ring patterns.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Silver? Ring with red stone.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Silver? Ring with red stone.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Decorated single handled jug and fragments of a black pottery jug.
Photo courtesy of SAP.
See http://www.pompeiisites.org/Sezione.jsp?titolo=Votive+Offerings+Pre-Roman&idSezione=7533

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations.

Decorated single handled jug and fragments of a black pottery jug.

Photo courtesy of SAP.

See http://www.pompeiisites.org/Sezione.jsp?titolo=Votive+Offerings+Pre-Roman&idSezione=7533

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Decorated single handled jug.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014.

Decorated single handled jug.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations. Decorated single handled trefoil jug and small round undecorated jug.
Photo courtesy of SAP.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014 excavations.

Decorated single handled trefoil jug and small round undecorated jug.

Photo courtesy of SAP.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Decorated object.
Photo courtesy of SAP.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Decorated object.

Photo courtesy of SAP.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Three single handled jugs.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Three single handled jugs.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Two double handled jugs.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Two double handled jugs.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Decorated pottery with two horn style handles.
According to the SAP website, the most striking aspect of the finds dated to the Archaic Age is the sheer quantity of bucchero pottery with engraved inscriptions in the Etruscan language, which represents the largest corpus of Etruscan inscriptions yet found in a single context in Southern Italy. The bucchero pottery was employed in sacrifices which saw offerings of red or white wine, or herbal infusions, to the gods. 
The inscriptions were made on the basin and on the feet of the bowls and banquet vases, which after usage were deposited upside down on the ground.
These inscriptions reveal the names of those who made the offerings - Etruscans who also came from Tuscany, and of the deities to whom the sanctuary was dedicated - the god ‘apa’ or ‘father’ - perhaps Jupiter Meilichios.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Decorated pottery with two horn style handles.

According to the SAP website, the most striking aspect of the finds dated to the Archaic Age is the sheer quantity of bucchero pottery with engraved inscriptions in the Etruscan language, which represents the largest corpus of Etruscan inscriptions yet found in a single context in Southern Italy. The bucchero pottery was employed in sacrifices which saw offerings of red or white wine, or herbal infusions, to the gods. 

The inscriptions were made on the basin and on the feet of the bowls and banquet vases, which after usage were deposited upside down on the ground.

These inscriptions reveal the names of those who made the offerings - Etruscans who also came from Tuscany, and of the deities to whom the sanctuary was dedicated - the god ‘apa’ or ‘father’ - perhaps Jupiter Meilichios.

 

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Decorated pottery with representation of a face.

Santuario extraurbano del Fondo Iozzino. 2014. Decorated pottery with representation of a face.

 

 

Part 1      Part 2

 

 

 

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Ultimo aggiornamento - Last updated: 29-Sep-2018 18:06