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VIII.1.4 Pompeii. Antiquarium. Opened 1861 (Maiuri) or 1873-4 (SAP).

Including the Larario dei Pompeianisti which was opened in 1948.

Bombed 1943. Reconstructed 1947. Reopened 13th June 1948.

Closed for restoration 1976. Did not reopen after earthquake in 1980.

Restoration work 2009 to 2016. Reopened 28th April 2016.

Part 1                                                  Part 2

 

Secondo Maiuri l'Antiquarium è stata fondata nel 1861.

Vedi: Maiuri A., 1970. Pompeii. Roma: Istituto poligrafico dello Stato, p. 102.

 

Secondo il sito web SAP, L’Antiquarium di Pompei fu realizzato da Giuseppe Fiorelli tra il 1873 e il 1874 negli spazi sottostanti la terrazza del Tempio di Venere, con affaccio su Porta Marina. Fu sede espositiva di una selezione di reperti provenienti da Pompei ed esemplificativi della vita quotidiana dell’antica città, oltre che dei calchi delle vittime dell’eruzione.

Nel 1926 venne ampliato da Amedeo Maiuri, che oltre ad aggiungere grandi mappe con gli sviluppi aggiornati degli scavi dal 1748 in poi e inserire nuovi reperti provenienti dalla Villa Pisanella di Boscoreale nonché dai più recenti scavi di via dell’Abbondanza, impostò un percorso che guidava il visitatore nella storia di Pompei dalle origini fino all’eruzione.

L’edificio fu poi gravemente danneggiato dalle bombe della II guerra mondiale nel settembre 1943 e grazie all’intervento di restauro del Maiuri, il 13 giugno del 1948 riaprì alla fruizione dei visitatori in occasione della celebrazione del 2° centenario degli scavi di Pompei.

Nuovamente danneggiato, stavolta dal terremoto del 1980, da allora è rimasto chiuso al pubblico. Nel 2010 è stato interessato da una ristrutturazione generale, che aveva previsto anche la realizzazione di alcuni allestimenti virtuali, ma mai inaugurato.

Al 28 aprile 2016 la Soprintendenza restituisce alla fruizione del pubblico un edificio restaurato con interventi che hanno inteso recuperare tutti gli allestimenti realizzati nel 2010 integrandoli con una più completa offerta di conoscenza per il visitatore e multimediale e museale.

Vedi: Il sito web SAP

 

Secondo Garcia y Garcia, il 25 febbraio 1861 Fiorelli ha proposto l'istituzione di un museo a Pompei. Per la finanziaria o ragioni di disponibilità della terra il grande disegno originale non è stato proceduto. 

Nel giornale manoscritto alla data del 17 marzo 1863 mostra Fiorelli era ormai adattato un lungo rettilineo grande parte cripta era una struttura antica scoperta sotto la terrazza del Tempio di Venere. Ingresso era da una porta sotto l'arco di Porta Marina. Questo manoscritto è datato dopo la requisizione e distruzione del casino Minervini, che per anni aveva in parte le stanze antiche come cellai. Garcia y Garcia suggerisce che questo è “meglio sarebbe chiamarlo magazzino”. 

La storia di questo primo Museo Pompeiano è quasi avvolta nel mistero, e della sua prima istituzione, come del suo evolversi, non abbiamo quasi nessun tipo di documentazione. 

Nel 1873 Fiorelli (Gli Scavi di Pompei...) non ne aveva fatto cenno.

Nel 1875 Fiorelli (Descrizione...) descrivendo la Porta Marina e la cripta (nell'antichità un deposito per gli oggetti provenienti dal mare), parla già  del Museo Pompeiano, ma senza nessun’altra notizia.

Nel 1877 Fiorelli (Guida) descrive semplicemente "si ritorna alla Porta della Marina dove potrà osservare il Museo Pompeiano". Elenca anche oltre 1,600 articoli trovati nel Museo.

Possiamo pertanto presumere la sua istituzione tra gli anni 1873-4.

Vedi: Garcia y Garcia, L., 2006. Danni di guerra a Pompei. Rome: L’Erma di Bretschneider, p. 173ff.

Vedi: Fiorelli, G., 1875. Descrizione di Pompei. Napoli, p. 316.

Vedi: Fiorelli, G., 1877. Guida di Pompei, Napoli, pp. 87-108.

 

According to Maiuri the Antiquarium was founded in 1861.

See Maiuri A., 1970. Pompeii. Roma: Istituto poligrafico dello Stato, p. 102.

 

According to the SAP web site, the Pompeii Antiquarium was built by Giuseppe Fiorelli between 1873 and 1874 in spaces below the terrace of the Temple of Venus, overlooking Porta Marina. It was the exhibition of a selection of artefacts from Pompeii and exemplification of the daily life of the ancient city, as well as the casts of victims of the eruption.

In 1926 it was enlarged by Amedeo Maiuri, which in addition to adding larger maps with updated developments of the excavations from 1748 onwards and entering new finds from Villa Pisanella of Boscoreale and by the most recent excavations of via dell’Abbondanza, set a path guiding the visitor through the history of Pompeii from the origins up to the eruption.

The building was severely damaged by the bombs of the second world war in September 1943 and, thanks to the intervention of the Maiuri restoration, reopened to visitors on the 13 June 1948 on the occasion of the celebration of the second centenary of the excavation of Pompeii.

Damaged again, this time by an earthquake in 1980, it has since remained closed to the public. In 2010 there was a general restructuring, in anticipation of the creation of some virtual reality installations, but it never opened.

On the 28th April 2016 the Superintendent reopened to the public a restored building that built on all the preparations made in 2010 and integrates them with a more complete offer of knowledge for the visitor through a visitor centre, new bookshop, multimedia displays as well as the Museum and an area for temporary exhibitions. The functions are currently shared with the Villa Imperiale, VIII.1.a, below it, which has never previously been open to the public.

 

See SAP web site

 

According to Garcia y Garcia, on the 25th February 1861 Fiorelli proposed the institution of a Museum at Pompeii. For financial or land availability reasons the original grand design was not proceeded with.

A manuscript dated 17th March 1863 shows Fiorelli had by then adapted a long straight big crypt part of which was an antique structure discovered below the terrace of the Temple of Venus. It was entered by a door under the arch of the Porta Marina. This manuscript is dated after the requisition and demolition of the Casino Minervini, which for years had used the antique crypt as a storage cellar. Garcia y Garcia suggests this was more a store than a museum.

The history of this museum is somewhat shrouded in mystery and lack of documented detail.

In 1873 Fiorelli (Gli Scavi di Pompei…) does not mention the Museo at all.

In 1875 Fiorelli (Descrizione…) describes the crypt (in antiquity a deposit for items coming by sea) and mentions the Museo, but gives no further details.

In 1877 Fiorelli (Guida) simply describes “returning to the Porta Marina where you will observe the Museo Pompeiano”. He also lists over 1600 items found in the Museo.

All these may suggest a Museum further developed in 1873-4, possibly opened in 1875.

See Garcia y Garcia, L., 2006. Danni di guerra a Pompei. Rome: L’Erma di Bretschneider, p. 173ff.

See Fiorelli, G., 1875. Descrizione di Pompei. Napoli, p. 316.

See Fiorelli, G., 1877. Guida di Pompei, Napoli, pp. 87-108.

 

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium. Entrance. January 2010. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium. January 2010. Entrance doorway.

Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

 

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium. Entrance. December 2005.

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium. December 2005. Entrance.

 

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium. December 2005. Room inside entrance.

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium. December 2005. Room inside entrance.

 

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium. January 2010. Room inside entrance. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium. January 2010. Room inside entrance. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

 

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium. About 1870. Cast of watch dog (Victim number 8). 
Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium. About 1870. Cast of watch dog (Victim number 8).

Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

 

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium. About 1875. Photograph of interior. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium. About 1875. Photograph of interior. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

 

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium. About 1870. Photograph of interior by Brogi.

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium. About 1870. Photograph of interior by Brogi.

 

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium. Old postcard showing interior. 
Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium. Old postcard showing interior.

Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

 

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium. About 1892. Cast of woman (Victim number 10) found on Via Stabiana. 
See Dwyer, E., 2010. Pompeii’s Living Statues. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium. About 1892. Cast of woman (Victim number 10) found on Via Stabiana.

See Dwyer, E., 2010. Pompeii’s Living Statues. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

 

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium.  About 1948. Photograph of interior. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium.  About 1948. Photograph of interior.

Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

 

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium. 1978. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.   
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details. J78f0094

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium. 1978. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.  

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J78f0094

 

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium.  1978. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.   
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details. J78f0160

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium. 1978. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.  

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J78f0160

 

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium.  About 1948. Photograph of interior. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium.  About 1948. Photograph of interior.

Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

 

VIII.1.4 Pompeii Antiquarium. Cast of female victim. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

 

VIII.1.4, Pompeii Antiquarium,  August 1965. Plaster-cast of woman found above Via Stabiana, on the north-east corner of VI.14. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

VIII.1.4, Pompeii Antiquarium, August 1965.

Plaster-cast of woman found above Via Stabiana, on the north-east corner of VI.14.

Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

 

VIII.1.4, Pompeii Antiquarium, July 1964. Bronze statue of Bacchus. SAP 11864. 
Found in I.16.2 on 26th September 1957. Height 0.96m, width 0.37m. 
SAP inventory number 11864. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

VIII.1.4, Pompeii Antiquarium, July 1964. Bronze statue of Bacchus. SAP 11864.

Found in I.16.2 on 26th September 1957. Height 0.96m, width 0.37m.

SAP inventory number 11864. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

 

VIII.1.4, Antiquarium, Pompeii. August 1965. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

 

VIII.1.4, Antiquarium, Pompeii. August 1965. Display shelf with excavation finds. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

VIII.1.4, Antiquarium, Pompeii. August 1965. Display shelf with excavation finds.

Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

 

VIII.1.4, Antiquarium, Pompeii. August 1965. Statues from room of the Antiquarium. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

VIII.1.4, Antiquarium, Pompeii. August 1965.

Statues from room of the Antiquarium.

Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

 

VIII.1.4, Antiquarium, Pompeii.  August 1965. The Inn Sign from I.11.10/11, had a painting of a phoenix with 2 peacocks and the welcoming inscription PHOENIX FELIX ET TU. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

VIII.1.4, Antiquarium, Pompeii.  August 1965.

The Inn Sign from I.11.10/11, had a painting of a phoenix with 2 peacocks and the welcoming inscription PHOENIX FELIX ET TU.

Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

 

VIII.1.4, Antiquarium, Pompeii.  August 1965. Painting from I.8.8. of Bellepheron and Pegasus, found  on the west wall of the triclinium. Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

VIII.1.4, Antiquarium, Pompeii.  August 1965.

Painting from I.8.8. of Bellepheron and Pegasus, found on the west wall of the triclinium.

Photo courtesy of Rick Bauer.

 

 

Part 2